Spatial Relationship between Unemployment, Immigration, and Criminality

Authors

  • Jhon James Mora Universidad Icesi
  • Luis Eduardo Sandoval Garrido Universidad Militar Nueva Granada https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9615-6533
  • Laura Carolina Riaño Bermudez Universidad Militar Nueva Granada

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.60758/laer.v33.253

Keywords:

Crime, Spatial analysis, Immigration, Unemployment

Abstract

This article discusses the relationships between immigration, unemployment, and crime. Venezuelan social and economic instability has led to an exodus of Venezuelan citizens to Colombian cities in recent years. Cali, the third most important city in Colombia, is aware of this phenomenon, as it is a recipient of the Venezuelan immigrant population. In light of the few existing job opportunities in the Cali, this influx has impacted violence and crime rates in the city. The international literature has shown negative correlations between economic activity, violence, and crime to date, but the spatial interactions between these elements and immigration have not been analyzed. This lack of study is unusual in a developing country like Colombia. Therefore, this study fills that gap by first constructing two crime indices, which weigh different types of crimes that affect citizen security and provide a matrix of spatial distances. Then, we prepared spatial models using proximity to commands of immediate attention (police stations). Our results show that there is a positive spatial relationship between the unemployment of the immigrant population and the levels of crime in the City of Cali.

Author Biographies

  • Luis Eduardo Sandoval Garrido, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada

    Department of Economics, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada

  • Laura Carolina Riaño Bermudez, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada

    Graduate Assistant, Department of Economics, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada

References

Accetturo, A. (2010). Agglomeration and growth: The effects of commuting costs. Papers in Regional Science, 89(1), 173–190.

Acemoglu, D., Dahleh, M. A., Lobel, I., & Ozdaglar, A. (2011). Bayesian learning in social networks. The Review of Economic Studies, 78(4), 1201–1236.

Anselin, L. (1995). Local indicators of spatial association-LISA. Geographical Analysis, 27(2), 93–115.

Bianchi, M., Buonanno, P., & Pinotti, P. (2012). Do immigrants cause crime? Journal of the European Economic Association, 10(6), 1318–1347.

Bivand, R. S., Pebesma, E. J., Gomez-Rubio, V., & Pebesma, E. J. (2013). Applied spatial data analysis with R, volume 2. Springer.

Blair, J. P., Staley, S. R., & Zhang, Z. (1996). The central city elasticity hypothesis: A cri- tical appraisal of rusk’s theory of urban development. Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(3), 345–353.

Bonilla Mejía, L. (2010). Demografía, juventud y homicidios en colombia, 1979-2006. Lecturas de Economía, 72(72), 103–140.

Borjas, G. J. (1988). Self-selection and the earnings of immigrants.

Borjas, G. J. (1992). The intergenerational mobility of immigrants. Technical report, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Borjas, G. J. (2003). The labor demand curve is downward sloping: reexamining the impact of immigration on the labor market. Technical report, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Borjas, G. J., Grogger, J., & Hanson, G. H. (2010). Immigration and the economic status of african-american men. Economica, 77(306), 255–282.

Carranza Romero, J. E., Dueñas Herrera, X., & González Espitia, C. G. (2011). Análisis empírico de la relación entre la actividad económica y la violencia homicida en colombia. Estudios Gerenciales, 27(119), 59–78.

Carranza Romero, J. E., González Espitia, C. G., & Bocanegra Ochoa, G. E. (2020). Efecto de la actividad económica sobre la violencia homicida: Nueva evidencia a partir de datos de panel en colombia. Cuadernos de economía (Santafé de Bogotá), 39(79), 355–388.

Charlot, S. & Duranton, G. (2004). Communication externalities in cities. Journal of Urban Economics, 56(3), 581–613.

Chaudhuri, K., Chowdhury, P., & Kumbhakar, S. C. (2014). Crime in india: specification and estimation of violent crime index. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 43(1), 13–28.

Choi, S., Gale, D., & Kariv, S. (2005). Behavioral aspects of learning in social networks: an experimental study. Advances in Applied Microeconomics, 13, 25–61.

DANE (2019). Mercado Laboral: Cali A.M* (Octubre-Diciembre 2018). Technical report.

Dorosh, P. & Thurlow, J. (2009). Agglomeration, migration, and regional growth: A CGE analysis for Uganda. Technical report, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

Dupont, V. (2007). Do geographical agglomeration, growth and equity conflict? Papers in Regional Science, 86(2), 193–213.

Duranton, G. & Puga, D. (2004). Micro-foundations of urban agglomeration economies. Hand- book of regional and urban economics, 4, 2063–2117.

Ehrlich, I. (1973). Participation in illegitimate activities: A theoretical and empirical investi- gation. The Journal of Political Economy, (pp. 521–565).

Elhorst, J. P. (2017). Spatial panel data analysis. Encyclopedia of GIS, 2, 2050–2058.

Entorf, H. & Spengler, H. (2008). Is being’soft on crime’the solution to rising crime rates? evidence from germany.

Finklea, K. M. (2011). : Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

Freeman, R. B. (1991). Crime and the employment of disadvantaged youths. Technical report, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Freeman, R. B. (1996). Why do so many young American men commit crimes and what might we do about it? Technical report, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Fujita, M. & Thisse, J.-F. (2003). Does geographical agglomeration foster economic growth? and who gains and loses from it? Japanese Economic Review, 54(2), 121–145.

Garrett, T. A. & Ott, L. S. (2008). City business cycles and crime. FRB of St. Louis Working Paper No. 2008-026B

Gaviria, A. & Pagés, C. (2002). Patterns of crime victimization in latin american cities. Journal of Development Economics, 67(1), 181–203.

Geary, R. C. (1954). The contiguity ratio and statistical mapping. The incorporated statistician, 5(3), 115–146.

Getis, A. & Ord, J. (1992). The analysis of spatial association by use of distance statistics. Geographical Analysis.

Giersch, H. (1949). Economic union between nations and the location of industries. The Review of Economic Studies, 17(2), 87–97.

Glaeser, E. L. & Sacerdote, B. (1996). Why is there more crime in cities? Technical report, National Bureau of Economic Research.

Herrera, J. P. & Gerena, F. L. (2005). Modelo de manadas y aprendizaje social. Revista de Economía Institucional, 7(13).

Levitt, S. D. (2004). Understanding why crime fell in the 1990s: Four factors that explain the decline and six that do not. Journal of Economic perspectives, 18(1), 163–190.

Mancera, A. (2008). Factores socioeconómicos y demográficos de distintas categorías de delitos en colombia. prueba desde un panel de datos de las regiones de colombia. Economía Del Caribe, (2), 202–231.

Migración Colombia (2021). Permiso especial de permanencia. Disponible en: https://www.gov.co/ficha-tramites-y-servicios/T53794. Recuperado el 25 de Mayo de 2021.

Montenegro, A. & Posada, C. E. (1994). Criminalidad en Colombia. Technical report, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

Mora, J. J. (2021). Análisis del desempleo y la ocupación después de una política estricta de confinamiento por covid-19 en cali. Lecturas de Economía, (94), 165–193.

Moran, P. A. (1950). Notes on continuous stochastic phenomena. Biometrika, 37(1/2), 17–23. Moses, L. N. (1958). Location and the theory of production. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, (pp. 259–272).

Nakamura, R. (1985). Agglomeration economies in urban manufacturing industries: a case of japanese cities. Journal of Urban Economics, 17(1), 108–124.

Núñez, C. A. et al. (2009). Movilidad social, desigualdad de oportunidades y actividades delic- tivas: un enfoque teórico. Technical report, Universidad de los Andes, CEDE.

Palacios, M. (2006). Between legitimacy and violence: A history of Colombia, 1875–2002. Duke University Press.

Pena, J. B. (1978). La distancia p: un método para la medición del nivel de bienestar. Revista Española de Economía, (8), 49–89.

Pena, J. B. (2009). La medición del bienestar social: una revisión crítica. Estudios de Economía aplicada, 27(2), 299–324.

Porter, M. E. (1994). The role of location in competition. Journal of the Economics of Business, 1(1), 35–40.

Pérez-Luque, A., Moreno, R., Pérez-Pérez, R., & Bonet, F. (2015). Package ‘p2distance’. Dispo- nible en: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/p2distance/p2distance.pdf. Recuperado el 20 de Enero de 2021.

Quintero Cuello, D. M., Lahuerta Percipiano, Y., & Moreno Acosta, J. M. (2008). Un índice de criminalidad para colombia. Revista Criminalidad, 50(1), 37–58.

Raphael, S. & Winter-Ebmer, R. (2001). Identifying the effect of unemployment on crime. The Journal of Law and Economics, 44(1), 259–283.

Rosenfeld, R. (2009). Crime is the problem: Homicide, acquisitive crime, and economic conditions. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 25(3), 287–306.

Rubio, M. (2011). Los costos de la violencia en colombia. Presencia, 2010, 2009.

Sánchez, F., Díaz, A. M., & Formisano, M. (2003). Conflicto, violencia y actividad criminal en Colombia: un análisis espacial. CEDE.

Sánchez, F. & Núñez, J. (2011). Determinantes del crimen violento en un país altamente violento: el caso de colombia. Presencia, 2010, 2009.

Sandoval, L. E. (2018). Socio-economics characteristics and spatial persistence of homicides in colombia, 2000-2010. Estudios de Economía, 45(1), 51–77.

Siabato, W. & Manrique, J. G. (2019). La autocorrelación espacial y el desarrollo de la geografía cuantitativa. Cuadernos de Geografía: Revista Colombiana de Geografía, 28(1), 1–22.

Somarriba, N. (2008). Aproximación a la medición de la calidad de vida en la unión europea. Universidad de Valladolid: Valladolid, Spain.

Stark, O. (1991). The migration of labor. Blackwell Oxford.

Vargas, J. F. (2003). Conflicto interno y crecimiento económico en colombia. Bogotá: Tesis peg, Universidad de los Andes.

Wallace, M. (2009). Measuring crime in Canada: Introducing the crime severity index and improvements to the Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. ProQuest.

Zarzosa, P. (1992). Aproximación a la medición del bienestar social: estudio de la idoneidad del indicador sintético distancia p-2. PhD thesis, Universidad de Valladolid.

Downloads

Published

2024-04-23

Issue

Section

Regular articles

How to Cite

Spatial Relationship between Unemployment, Immigration, and Criminality. (2024). Latin American Economic Review, 33, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.60758/laer.v33.253

Similar Articles

1-10 of 21

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.